INDONESIA ENTREPRENEURSHIP CONDITION

Entrepreneurship is the most famous word that we always heard in the recent time. Increasing of young population in 2030 and internet users also become masive among the people, It makes Indonesia become a country who has big potential to increase its level of entrepreneurship. The government of Indonesia has been proven its commitment to support the spirit of entrepreneurial by established Gerakan Kewirausahaan Nasional (GKN) on February 2, 2011. The objective of this movement is to decrease unemployment and poverty in Indonesia. I tell you, the unemployment rate among educated workers generated by high school and college graduates are still high. The majority of young people in Indonesia are still not interested to become entrepreneurs, due to the lack of a national education system to provide soft-skill knowledge, the culture in society and the parents do not wish their children to do business after they graduated from schools or universities.

Based on data from the Ministry of Education and National Culture, interest in graduate education institutions for entrepreneurship is very low, which is for high school graduates (22.63 %) and higher education (6.14 %). While those who had elementary and junior high schools have the autonomy to try it yourself (32.46 %). There is a tendency for young high school education (61.87 %) and graduate (83.20 %) choose to become workers or employees than to be entrepreneurs. This means that the higher a person’s education level, the lower the self-reliance and motivation to become entrepreneurs. Indonesia currently has approximately 3,707,205 or 1.56 % of the total population of entrepreneurs in Indonesia. Ideally, to achieve progress and national walfare, it takes at least as much as 2 % of entrepreneurs of the population. As an illustration of the economic progress of countries like Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, South Korea and the United States is determined by the number of entrepreneurs  from 2.1 % up to 11.5 % of the country’s population[1].

As we see the current condition, that the level of entrepreneurs in Indonesia is still far away from the ideal. The basic needs regarding to boost the spirit of entrepreneurship and to generate new entrepreuners in Indonesia are full support from the government, education and motivation from all related parties. Here I will explain what things that have taken in order to increase the spirit of entrepreneurship in Indonesia:

The first is Support From The Government. As signed the agreement for ACFTA and AFTA by the government. Indonesia has a big challange to compete with other countries in Southeast Asia. Even on the paper, Indonesia is the biggest economic in this area. Still, we do not have many entrepreneurs to prop the economics on the whole. Without fully support from the government such as simplify to facilitate licensing to build a new business, simplify to get business capital and also minimize the illegal levies, it will be hard to compete in ASEAN and to generate new entrepreneurs in this country.

Secondly is Education. As I mentioned before, the education system in Indonesia does not support and encourage the students to be an entrepreneurships. The system of national education is still focus to prepare its alumunus to be a worker not entrepreneur. It is proven by high amount of of unemployment and low of entrepreneurs from graduates of Indonesia. The system has to be changed to the better system. That encourage entrepreneurial spirit by give the students softskills in the entrepreneurship, give them capability and knowledge how to build a business and challange them to change their mind after graduation. Entreprenerial education is not only responsibility of universities or school, it is also responsibility of all parties. So, I think, the students also have to gain the knowledge of entrepreneurship from business forums. Nowadays, so many entrepreuneurship forum in offline or online places. Those kind of forums will give huge impact in order to increase the knowledge and awareness of spirit of entrepreneurships and will encourage young people to be entrepreneurs.

And the last is Motivation. The motivation has to be clear. Actually, some of graduates/young people in Indonesia has huge potential to be entrepreneurs. However, the main problem is they do not have enough motivation to start their own business. The motivation activities can be conducted by provide them opportunities to show their idea in the businee competition, sharing knowledge by success entrepreneurship in this country to the  young people via seminar and training, and many more. Those events can be managed by universities, government and other parties, in order to give and to boost the spirit of entrepreneurship and then they will do their business immediately.

As a conclusion, Indonesia is the biggest economic country in the Southeast Asia, moreover Indonesia has big opportunity in ACFTA and AFTA agreement. The challange of the Indonesia Government  is to support the young people to build their own business in order to prop the economic to compete with other countries in this world. The things that  Indonesia has to do  is to fully support by the government by simplify to facilitate licensing to build a new business, simplify to get business capital and also minimize the illegal levies, without it, we will be hard to compete in ASEAN and to generate new entrepreneurs in this country. Make the appropriate education system, focus to give skill in entrepreneurships and the last is always spread motivation for Indonesian young people to start their own business, it has to be supported by all related parties. 

 

[1] http://www.spiritgkn.com/index.php?pilih=hal&id=8 

Budaya Gosip dan Mengolok-olok

Ada beberapa budaya disini, kurang bisa saya terima. Salah satunya membicarakan dan mengolok-olok orang lain. Kebiasaan ini hampir sering terjadi di berbagai lingkungan dan kalangan. Orang di negara ini, kalau tidak mengolok-olok atau mengumbar kekurangan orang lain rasanya seperti mau mati. 

Budaya mengolok-olok dan membicarakan kejelekan orang lain berdampak bagi perubahan di negeri ini. Contohnya, di dalam kelas, ada orang bertanya, malah dibilang bodoh atau sok pintar. Ada orang yang mempunyai ide besar, dibilang gila. Ada orang yang pintar, malah terus dicari kekurangannya. Ada inovasi baru, malah tidak dihargai. Dan banyak lagi kebiasaan-kebiasaan yang menghambat bagi kemajuan negara ini. Akibatnya, negara kita selalu kalah bersaing dengan negara lain. 

Saya pernah tinggal dan berbaur dengan orang dari berbagai negara. Saya melihat perbedaan yang sangat mencolok sekali dari orang Asia dan Barat (Eropa dan Amerika). Mau apapun negaranya, orang-orang Asia itu hobi sekali membicarakan kekurangan dan mengolok-olok orang lain. Mereka itu, sungguh menjengkelkan. Walaupun yang diolok-olok bukan saya, tapi saya sangat tidak nyaman untuk mendengarkannya. Yang bisa saya lakukan hanyalah berusaha mengalihkan ke topik lain yang lebih menarik atau pergi begitu saja menghindari pembicaraan itu. 

Dari pengalaman yang saya rasakan, nampaknya dibenarkan oleh seorang Profesor dari University of Queensland, yang bernama Prof. Ng Aik Kwang  dalam bukunya “Why Asians Are Less Creative Than Westerners” (2001) yang dianggap kontroversial tapi ternyata menjadi “best seller” mengemukakan beberapa hal tentang bangsa-bangsa Asia yang telah membuka mata dan pikiran banyak orang:

1.   Bagi kebanyakan orang Asia, dalam budaya mereka, ukuran sukses dalam hidup adalah banyaknya materi yang dimiliki (rumah, mobil, uang dan harta lain). Passion (rasa cinta terhadap sesuatu) kurang dihargai. Akibatnya, bidang kreatifitas kalah populer oleh profesi dokter, lawyer, dan sejenisnya yang dianggap bisa lebih cepat menjadikan seorang untuk memiliki kekayaan banyak.

2.   Bagi orang Asia, banyaknya kekayaan yang dimiliki lebih dihargai daripada CARA memperoleh kekayaan tersebut. Tidak heran bila lebih banyak orang menyukai ceritera, novel, sinetron atau film yang bertema orang miskin jadi kaya mendadak karena beruntung menemukan harta karun, atau dijadikan istri oleh pangeran dan sejenis itu. Tidak heran pula bila perilaku koruptif pun ditolerir/ diterima sebagai sesuatu yang wajar.

3.   Bagi orang Asia, pendidikan identik dengan hafalan berbasis “kunci jawaban” bukan pada pengertian. Ujian Nasional, tes masuk PT dll semua berbasis hafalan. Sampai tingkat sarjana, mahasiswa diharuskan hafal rumus2 Imu pasti dan ilmu hitung lainnya bukan diarahkan untuk memahami kapan dan bagaimana menggunakan rumus rumus tersebut.

4.   Karena berbasis hafalan, murid2 di sekolah di Asia dijejali sebanyak mungkin pelajaran. Mereka dididik menjadi “Jack of all trades, but master of none” (tahu sedikit sedikit ttg banyak hal tapi tidak menguasai apapun).

5.   Karena berbasis hafalan, banyak pelajar Asia bisa jadi juara dalam Olympiade Fisika, dan Matematika. Tapi hampir tidak pernah ada orang Asia yang menang Nobel atau hadiah internasional lainnya yang berbasis inovasi dan kreativitas.

6.   Orang Asia takut salah (KIASI) dan takut kalah (KIASU). Akibatnya sifat eksploratif sebagai upaya memenuhi rasa penasaran dan keberanian untuk mengambil resiko kurang dihargai.

7.   Bagi kebanyakan bangsa Asia, bertanya artinya bodoh, makanya rasa penasaran tidak mendapat tempat dalam proses pendidikan di sekolah

8.   Karena takut salah dan takut dianggap bodoh, di sekolah atau dalam seminar atau workshop, peserta jarang mau bertanya tetapi setelah sesi berakhir peserta mengerumuni guru / narasumber untuk minta penjelasan tambahan. Sumber (http://www.forumsains.com/pendidikan/mayoritas-pendidikan-di-asia/)

Dengan keadaan demikian, agak sulit untuk berkembang di negara ini. Makanya, jangan heran, banyak orang-orang berbakat di Indonesia malah pergi dan berkarir di negara lain, di Eropa atau Amerika. Karena kehidupan sosial disana lebih nyaman dan menyenangkan daripada disini.